Pointers in C++ with examples

What are the Types of Pointers in C++ with Examples?

Do you know what is the purpose of pointers in C++? Have you ever thought about what are pointers in CPP? Are you thinking why use pointers in CPP? let us try to clear all the doubts related to the pointers in C++.

But before we start gathering knowledge about the pointers in C++, let us try to find out the purpose & importance of pointers in C++ using a daily life example. This will help to clarify what are pointers in CPP & why use pointers in CPP.

Let us assume one scenario.

Suppose, you want to visit the zoo this coming weekend. With that target, on a decent day, you start your journey. But for visiting the zoo, you need to have its address of it. Without the address, it is impossible to visit any location. So, anyhow you gathered the address of the zoo. Then you visit that spot. And you find yourself in front of the zoo.

But is that your intention? Do you only want to see the zoo from the outside? You want to enter the zoo. For that purpose, you need to have the tickets. Without the tickets, you can’t able to enter the zoo complex. So, you collect one ticket & enjoy the rest of the day in the zoo.

From the above example, it is clear that the address is not enough. If you want to visit any complex like the zoo, you need to have a ticket also. Having the address of the premise will not be enough in some cases. The same thing goes for pointers in C++. Pointers are used to gather the address of the variables. Along with that, it helps to access the variable.




What Are Pointers In Cpp? Get To Know


Pointers in C++ are a very important feature. Many programming languages provide this feature. Pointers in C++ are a special type of variable. It is a variable that stores the address of another variable. Any variable in the programming languages is stored in the memory. Inside the memory, there are some spaces with proper addresses. Like houses have each unique addresses. Similarly, the variables that are stored in the computer memory have different addresses. Using these addresses, we can differentiate them.

Pointers store these addresses inside of them. pointers act as a variable. This means they will occupy some position inside the memory. So, every pointer must have its address. Along with that, the pointers can able to store the address of another variable inside of it. Along with that, with a pointer, there is an asterisk (*) sign present. This asterisk sign acts as the ticket to enter the address of the variables. If a pointer has an asterisk with it, it will show the value of the variable. The address of the variable should be provided there. This is a special function.



Why Use Pointers In Cpp? Read Below


Pointers are not only used in C++. But this is also used in various programming languages. This helps to reduce the space complexity of the programming. Along with that, it helps to reduce the problem related to function. If any variable is thrown to another function as an argument, then sometimes there might be some issues. Sometimes the value of the variable gets changed unnecessarily. Using the pointers, we can able to do anything with the variable. But the value will not get changed.

Also, pointers in C++ are used in difficult problems. Sometimes, there is a need to use dynamic memory allocation. This is the special feature. This is completely based on the pointers in C++. Also, sharing one array of information with other functions can easily be done with the help of pointers. There just we need to provide the starting index address. Other addresses can be found easily. For those reasons, pointers are highly used. In every field, the pointers are included in the programs for better structure of the program. Pointers help to think about the address of the variables. Their allocation process can be understood using pointers. This means the advantage of using pointers is infinite.


What Are The Types Of Pointers In C++?


The types of pointers are not so much important. There is only one type of pointer mainly used on a large scale. That is the normal pointer. But along with that, there are two other types of pointers in C++. These things need to be discussed in a better manner.

But let us first make a list of the possible types of pointers in C++.

  1. Normal Pointer
  2. Void Pointer
  3. Null Pointer

Let us try to know more about them one by one briefly.



Normal Pointers In C++:


These are the most used pointers in C++. Also, these pointers can be used in other programming languages. In this case, we need to first declare a variable. Along with that, we need to declare one pointer of the same data type. After that, we need to assign the address of the variable to the pointer. Then, we will print the address of the variable using the pointer. Then we need to print the value of the variable using the pointer along with the asterisk sign.




#include <iostream> using namespace std;

int main() {

            int  zap = 5; // Variable Declaration 

            int  *one; // Pointer Declaration       

            one = &zap; // Pointer To Variable   

            cout << "Address Value : "<< one<< endl;

cout << "Value : "<< *one << endl; return 0}


Let us try to find out the output of the above code. This will help to understand the normal pointers in C++.




Normal Pointers In C++ Output


Void Pointers In C++:


Void pointers are those pointers, that can be used in every data type. This means these pointers are declared in void form. Then, as per our need, we can type case them to any other data type. This helps to reduce the pointer usability in the program. Only one pointer can be used in different cases.

In this case, we need to declare a pointer as a void one. This means there will be no datatype present in this case. As usual, we will declare the variable & we will store the address of the variable to the pointer. At the time of printing, we need to typecast the pointer to a certain data type. This must be the same as the variable data type.




#include <iostream>using namespace std;

int main(){

            int zap = 5; // Variable Declaration

            void *one; // Void Pointer Declaration

            one = &zap; // Pointer To Variable

            cout<<"Integer Value: << *((int*)one)) // Type Casting Pointer

            return 0;}


Let us try to find out the output of the above code. This will help to understand the void pointers in C++.



Valid Pointers In C++ Output


Null Pointers In C++:


This is another type of pointer. In this case, a pointer is declared. But it will have the initial value as Null. This means a later value is going to be provided there. This is also a pre-step of the normal pointers. Sometimes a normal pointer is declared as a Null pointer. After that, the value will be provided there.




#include <iostream>using namespace std;

int main(){

            int *zapone = NULL; // Null Pointer Declaration

            cout << "Value Of Pointer: " << zapone;

            return 0;}

Let us try to find out the output of the above code. This will help to understand the null pointers in C++.




Null Pointers In C++ Output




As we saw, pointers in C++ are a very important topic.

We need to always remember what are pointers in CPP. Also, we need to gain more knowledge about why use pointers in CPP by doing more & more practice.

It is advisable to clear the basics of the C++ programming language. Then it will be easy for us to gain knowledge about this topic in an easy & proper manner.

So, hope you have liked this piece of article. Share your thoughts in the comments section and let us know if we can improve more.

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