What Is the Difference Between Encapsulation and Abstraction in Programming?

What Is the Difference Between Encapsulation and Abstraction in Programming?

Do you know what the “Difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction” is in Java programming language? Have you ever thought about the relations present between the Abstraction and Encapsulation concepts in Java? In this article, we will discuss the main differences and talk about the implementation of a sample encapsulation program. Still, if you have any doubts regarding this topic or related to Java Homework Assignments then contact us!

Let us try to figure out all such possible quarries related to the OOP Encapsulation vs. abstraction concept in this article. But before we start writing about the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction concepts, we need to first know its roots.

Without knowing the root of any topic, we can’t move ahead to a much deeper point. So, we should start with a brief introduction of its background details. Then, it will be easy for us to know some more important points on this topic.

So, let us start our discussion with the OOP concept.


What Is Object Oriented Programming Concept? Read Below


Every computer science student must aware of this topic. An individual who doesn’t know the OOP concept can’t be imagined as a student in Computer Science. From your 2nd year in the university, you should start preparing the OOP concept.

The OOP or OOPs stands for the Object Oriented Programming concept. In this concept, there are several sections are present. That is the reason; oftentimes plural terms are used after the OOP. OOPs is the gateway to your career path.

An individual, who has a good base in Object Oriented Programming Language concepts, is going to take a high spot in their career graph. All the Information Technology industry is running with the help of the Object Oriented Programming Langauge.

By using the term OOP concept, we are not referring to any other special programming languages. It is like a theory that can be implemented in more than every programming language in the globe.

The OOP concept applies to Java programming languages, C++ programming languages, Python programming languages & many more. And all the applications that are running around the globe have used any one of the OOPs concepts. If you’re curious to know more about C++ applications, then you can check out our article on “What Are The Applications of C++ and It’s Uses?“.

Also, if you’re looking for C++ homework help then you can hire CodingZap experts!

In the OOP, there are several concepts are present. Like in the OOP, one can define classes and objects in programming languages. Along with that, some more features are present in the OOPs.

In the OOP, there are Inheritance, Polymorphism, Association, Composition & many others. All these concepts are made for the easy implementation of a large project in any corporate company.


What Are The Two Important Concepts in Object Oriented Programming?


There are also two important OOPs concepts present. These are Abstraction and Encapsulation. These are the two features that might look similar & a student can easily find many similarities between them.

But whatever we are assuming & watching is not always true. The same thing can be implemented for the Abstraction and Encapsulation concept. There are also many differences are present in between these two concepts.

We will know more about those differences when we will discuss Abstraction Vs Encapsulation in Java programming language. But one thing you should note is that all of these concepts belong to other programming languages like Python programming language.

Also if you’re curious to know about more differences in Java, then check out our article “What is The Difference Between Comparator and Comparable In Java?

But their similarities & differences will be the same there also as they belong to the same root or group.

We hope that the above discussion related to the background details of Abstraction and Encapsulation is now clear to you. You should note that they belong to the same group of concepts & there will be some similarities & differences.

Now, it is time to discuss those topics one by one briefly which will clear your doubts.


What Is The Abstraction Concept? Get To Know


Before we start writing about the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction, we need to first know about the Abstraction concept separately. After discussing the concept, we will implement one sample program on this concept.

In simple words, the Abstraction concept hides some elements of the program from the users. These are the elements that are not necessarily one to the users. But those elements that are necessary to the users will become available to view.

You might assume it is a complex system, but the implementation is quite easy. So, let us clear your doubt with one example.

Explained Through Example:


We can take an example of a Smartphone to understand the topic. While using a Smartphone, as simple, normal users, what do we do generally? We touch some of the applications to open it, or sometimes we press the Power button to wake us to the device.

That means, we can only see the buttons & the screen of the Smartphone. We can do anything on the screen & using the buttons. But as a user, do you bother about the internal details of the Smartphone? Do you interested to know about the internal work behind the button?

The Abstraction concept works in the same manner. Here, the need to use the button & touch screen is important for the users. Rests of the things do not matter to the user if the device is running smoothly. Abstraction concepts hide those things from the users.

In that cases, a user can only be focused on the things that are necessary to them. That means only the relevant data the focus will be centred on. Every user will not be aware of the internal working of the Smartphone. So a normal operation inside of the Smartphone complex system can make a user worried as they don’t know about it.

In Java programming language, the Abstraction theory is made with the help of the Interface & the Abstract classes. All these things will get clear when one sample program will be implemented using the Java programming language.

But till now, the theory of Abstraction in the OOP should be clear to you. Based upon these discussions the program will be implemented.


How To Implement A Sample Abstraction Program In Java?


The implementation level of the sample Abstraction class will be much easy. Some of the elements that are discussed inside the theory will be used in this implementation process. The program will start with the implementation of the abstract classes.

Inside the abstraction class, one simple function will be declared. The function is going to be developed further in the future. Now, we will create one interface with the help of the extend keyword in the Java program which will connect two classes or data members.

Now, inside the interface, the function will be developed. Inside the function, we have only used one random statement for printing purposes. Now, we will move to the main function. Inside the main function, we will create one object of the class.

Using that, we will call the function to print the line. So, the Abstraction sample program is implemented.



 abstract class Out {public abstract void Zap();} // Declaration Of Abstract Class }  
class Sample extends Out{ // Making Interface Class    
public void Zap(){  // Making Functionality Of Abstract Class 
System.out.println("Print: The Program Executed");}}  
public class Main{public static void main(String[] args){  
        Out Sample = new Sample(); Sample.Zap();}} // Calling The Function

Let us try to find out the output of the code defined above. It will help to understand the implementation details of the Abstraction method in the Java programming language.



How To Implement A Sample Abstraction Program In Java?


What Is The Encapsulation Concept?


After discussing the Abstraction method in the Java programming language, it will not be fair if we directly move toward the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction without discussing the definition of Encapsulation.

Encapsulation is the moreover same theory as the Abstraction method. The Encapsulation theory also hides some irrelevant details of the program from the users. That is the reason; many students get confused between Abstraction & Encapsulation.

The Abstraction hides some elements from the users & some elements are accessible to the users. But in the case of the Encapsulation, all the data are hidden from the users. Users with special permission can only view those elements. That means it works on a complete data-hiding process.

It is quite sure that the theory is not getting cleared in your mind. So, let us discuss one example.

Explained Through Example:


In your house, there might be some important, valuable elements present. Those elements might be some jewellery, ornaments or property papers, etc. The elements that are valuable for you & your family members. So, you keep those things in a safe place like in a locked trunk.

Any outsider in your family can access those things. But your family members like your father, mother, and brother can get easy access to those things because you trust them. So, trust is the key element that plays an important role there.

For the Encapsulation theory, there is also a ‘Trust’ issue. The elements are not present for any outsiders. But using the code, you can mark some functions or elements trustworthy to access those things. In simple words, Encapsulation protects elements from outside attackers.

You might hear the word Encapsulation in WhatsApp. All the chats are locked with the Encapsulation theory so that any outsiders can’t access those chats. The theory works in the same manner. It is a very important thing from the security viewpoint.

We hope that the above discussion is quite clear to you. Now, we will move to the implementation process of the Encapsulation in the Java programming language. We will use a sample program for it. Then, we will move to the OOP Abstraction Vs Encapsulation topic.


How To Implement A Sample Encapsulation Program In Java?


Here, we will declare a sample class other than the main function inside of the Java programming language. Then, inside the class, one function will be declared. That function will work as the constructor. Along with that, some fields of operation have also been declared there.


How To Implement A Sample Encapsulation Program In Java?


Now, inside of the main function, the object of the function will be created. While making the object of the function, we should provide some value that will be needed while generating the result. After proving the values, the function will be called. Hence, the Encapsulation sample program is created.



 class Sample { int l;int w; // Different Fields Of Operation
  Sample(int l, int w) { this.l = l; this.w = w;} // Making Constructor Of The Class
  public void get() { // Calculation The Value
    int a = l + w; System.out.println("Result Is: " + a); }} // Printing The Data
public class Main{ public static void main(String[] args) { 
Sample obj = new Sample(10, 20); // Making Object Of Class
    obj.get();}} // Calling The Function

Let us try to find out the output of the code defined above. It will help to understand the implementation details of the Encapsulation method in the Java programming language.



What Is The Encapsulation Concept?


What Is The Difference Between Encapsulation And Abstraction?


Now, the most awaited part of this article has arrived. We are now going to discuss some dissimilarities between the Encapsulation & Abstraction methods in the Java programming language. But one thing should keep in mind that, the definition of these concepts plays an important role.

Let us try to focus on the following differences between the Abstraction vs Encapsulation methods.

Definition Of Concept


In the Encapsulation process, the data & the code are secured inside the single shield that protects it from the outside world.

In the Abstraction process, all the unnecessary data are hidden from the users. And other data remain present for the users.


Level Of Solving


The program implementation level is the level of solving for Encapsulation

The program design level is the level of solving for Abstraction


Field Of Work


Encapsulation engaged in internal code working.

Abstraction engaged in outside code working.


Build Up Modules


The encapsulation process is built up with several access modifiers in the programming language.

Abstraction is built up with the help of the abstract class & interfaces.


Operation On Information


Encapsulation is a process to gain information.

Abstraction is a process to contain information.



As we saw it is very important to know the difference between Encapsulation and Abstraction concepts.

Both things are necessary for different problems. In between these two concepts, it is very hard to draw out anyone as the better one. It is true that both concepts are necessary for the project development process. No one can replace the necessity of the other one.

It is also advisable to clear the basic programming concept where you are learning the Encapsulation & Abstraction concept. If it is the Java programming language, then the function calling & abstraction class should be cleared. Having a good grip on these OOP concepts will help you further in the future.

Also, if you’re a final-year student and looking for final-year project ideas then you can check out our articles on “Mobile Android App Development Project Ideas For Students” and “School Finder System Project For Final Year Students

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